Modern Citizenship:a Dilemma for the Realization of Human Rights
Ma.Concepción Delgado Parra

The human rights crisis began with the experience of the 20th century, in which everyone who did not count as a citizen of a particular state was not only deprived of his civil rights but also of his human rights.If the nation-state, through citizenship, constitutes the only legal authority that recognizes and realizes human rights, this discourse becomes meaningless for those experiencing processes of expatriation, emigration, or any other type of resignation from membership of a political entity.In this respect, the reconceptualization of the “right to have rights” within the framework of a non-centralized state will be crucial in the period since the 1948 Declaration of Human Rights, in which strictly international issues have been shifted towards cosmopolitan standards of justice.This article is based on the assumption that modern citizenship involves a dilemma that prevents the realization of human rights by confining this right to those who belong to an organized community.To this end, two moments of crisis of human rights mediated by the idea of human dignity, assumed as a political principle of universal legitimacy, are analyzed with the aim of tracking the possibilities afforded by cosmopolitan citizenship to overcome the aporia of human rights.

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